Why Did The Ayyubid Empire Collapse?
Via Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin who rose to power in the 12th century ruling over Egypt and a large part of the Middle East the Ayyubid were a Sultanate underneath the Abbasid Caliphate touting a notable number of Sultan’s in total by the end of their sovereignty in the 13th century the first Sultan Saladin was also the founder of the dynastic power though his father Ayub was responsible for giving the dynasty its name it was the Seljuk Turks as governor of Damascus that set the stage for Saladin to eliminate the Fatimid dynasty before being proclaimed Sultan in 1174 and styling himself custodian of the Two Holy Mosques though the eye Ayyubid speak of power proved to be quite short they did have success in creating a stronger Muslim presence both in Egypt as well as in opposition to the Christian Crusaders of Europe the Sunni denomination of Islam grew in the region’s ruled by the dynasty mostly due to their dedicated erection of multiple madrasahs or schools of islamic law the economy under a Ayyubid Authority also flourished even maintaining positive commercial relations with Europe on top of the religious.
And economic impact there was a level of importance put on education as the Ayyubid themselves were highly educated people the fields of science and medicine became widely valued boasting experts in these studies some of which who even personally served the Ayyubid architecture was also a key focal point under the dynasty mainly in the form of religious and military structures the latter being exemplified by the wall that was built surrounding Cairo and alpha stat encompassing them together within one barrier in spite of all the favorable and lucrative changes that the familial power provided via Ayyubid dynasty was still unable to build a long-term Empire in part this may have been caused by the lack of unity within the realm when it came to autonomy the dynasty after the reign of Saladin became a predominantly semi-feudal structure without a strong centralized government though this inner anatomy of the regime may have allowed for potential disloyalty and betrayals there were more than just internal struggles the ultimate downfall of the dynasty came from the outside the beginning of the AYYUBID decline correspondingly Sultanate in Egypt and followed the seventh Crusade having sent a fleet of 1800 ships to Cyprus the crusaders commander Lewis the ninth aimed to gain aid from the Mongols in order to increase his chances of conquering Egypt the Mongols proved unresponsive.
So Lewis led his troops onto Damietta without further support the current a Ayyubid Sultan Al Shelley made a hasty return to Egypt coming from Syria and bypassing Damietta making his way to Mansura where he organized a defensive force to fight the Crusaders though the Sultan fell ill as the conflict persisted against the Christians his wife Shazar elder became commander-in-chief of his troops and was successful in repelling the Crusaders ultimately leading to the arrest of King Lewis and his men sultan al Shelly passed away during the height of the crusade shifting the dynasties control over to his son all Mu’azzam Toran Shah who would soon make an outright destructive mistake despite his father’s Mamluk generals having played a crucial role in their success against the Christian offensive Tehran shah chose to detach from the Mamluks prompting a revolt against the new sultan that led to his assassination in 1251 of sultan al shalt leaves former bari Mamluk generals is al deen Eibach then married Shahar alder taking over control of the authority in Egypt on behalf of the newly crowned.
Sultan Alice Roth the second as the Mamluk ascension occurred in Egypt a Ayyubid control in Syria was also starting to fall apart having heard about sultan Tehran’s death on the CR Yusuf attempted successfully to gather support from every Syria based a Ayyubid Emmer and make in advance against the Mamluk power in Egypt at the end of 1250 Yusuf orchestrated an assault against Egypt flaunting his higher-numbered and better-equipped army over the forces of is Saladin Eibach stunningly regardless of advantage Youssef and his troops were soundly defeated and had no choice but to return to Syria shortly after in March of 1252 an alliance was formed between the Crusaders and Mamluks finally intent on instigating a war with the IU buds in Syria however before the conflict could escalate very far the opposing Muslim authorities concluded that such a war would only benefit the Crusaders side by the end of the spring season in 12:53 an agreement had been made confirming Mamluk control over Egypt and most of Palestine whereas the Ayyubid gained decisive dominion in Syria while the treaty would need to be reformed after discord between the powers of rose.
Once again this settlement marked the end of via Ayyubid dynastic power in Egypt peace between the dynasties of Syria and Egypt lasted for more than a year but as with most things the harmony was only temporary on the eye Ayyubid front on Nasir Yousuf began preparing for future strife with his supposed allies by sending – envoy’s to the up assets in Baghdad with the goal of requesting an official induction as Sultan under the assumption that such a title would be beneficial in the event of upcoming dissension between the Muslim dynasties this plea proved controversial as the Mamluk leader had apparently already sent his own invoice to Baghdad specifically urging the Caliph to hold back from granting the title to the a Ayyubid ruler if ever desired it as new tensions grew a conspiracy emerged in 1257 that left is Aldean Eibach dead placing his 15 year old son almond sir Ali on the Mamluk throne and prompting another rumored plot this new scheme was allegedly tied to on Nasir Yusuf as well as almond sir Ali’s Vizier causing the latter to be executed as a result Yusuf now faced pressure from the menlik’s of Syria who wished for him to step in and invade Egypt but worried that they would betray him if Egypt was to be conquered he refused this triggered a major strain between Yusuf and the local Mamluks who in the fall of 1257 suddenly moved from Damascus to the more southern city of Jerusalem Roka.
Aldean Babar a former general and leader of the current Mamluk population in Syria subsequently disposed of the governor of Jerusalem after he declined a request to support a campaign against Nasir Yusuf not stopping there by bars went on to seize Gaza and consequently incited a response from Youssef whose forces quickly pushed the bari man looks into submission changing objectives by bar later decided to make an advance towards Egypt though his efforts were ultimately stomped out with the inner factions of the Middle East already at great odds via Ayyubid dynasty faced yet another crippling threat in the form of the Mongols having been ordered by his brother to expand their empire further Hulagu gathered his army and assailed baghdad in 1258 murdering the caliph almost awesome in the process viu bids were unable to defend the city or its inhabitants when negotiation attempts with Hulagu failed yusuf was forced to continue his endeavours to defend other a Ayyubid territories even so in 1260 the mongols successfully laid siege to aleppo demolishing the great mosque and the citadel of aleppo as part of their conquest at this point fear of the Mongols began to plant seeds of betrayal amongst the Ayyubid Emmer’s some of which eventually chose to switch sides and align with the invaders in exchange for maintaining authority over their city all Nasir Yusuf at last decided to flee for Gaza leaving Damascus just before the city surrendered to the approaching.
Mongol army surprisingly the Mongols opted not to sack Damascus as they had done with the previous cities they’d seized leaving the citadel of Damascus and a small garrison left behind by Yusuf intact remotely organizing a revolt from Gaza Yusuf convicted the men to confront the invaders but the venture fundamentally failed to vogue a surrender from the garrison the Mongols resumed their campaign one by one annexing more cities and eventually capturing on Nasir Yusuf himself conclusively ridding the region of all an Ayyubid influence in September of 1260 the Mamluks of Egypt launched their own assault on the Mongols and won the pivotal battle of I’m just allowing for the capture of most of Syria is only a few weeks briskly taking primary control in the Middle East.
While almost all of the Ayyubid Emmer’s in Syria also lost their authority all Muenster of Hama was an exception on account of his actions fighting for the mem looks side during their campaign in accordance with this Hama remained under the rule of an Ayyubid lineage until $12.99 at which point it fell to the man look Dominion until being placed back in the hands of an eye Ayyubid descendant by the contemporary Mamluk sultan al Nasir Muhammad when Abu al-Fadil the new ruler of Hama passed away in 1331 his son all off dal Muhammad succeeded him but only for a short decade all off Don Muhammad was ousted from his position in 1341 returning Hama completely to the Mamluks the only remaining sign of an Ayyubid dynasty power existed solely in southeastern Anatolia where lingering shreds of the dynasty reigned over the Principality of his kayfa as an independent institution until they were dethroned in the 16th century by the Ottoman Empire.
Why Did The Ayyubid Empire Collapse?